We have decided to make some changes to our campaign and relaunch in a few months


Hi Everyone, Thank you for all your support and feedback.  After taking into consideration some of your concerns, we have decided to make some changes to our campaign and relaunch in a few months!As fellow lizard lovers and friends of fish, we make animal safety a top priority.  In order to ensure that your friends with fins or four legs live long and happy lives, it is crucial that our customers’ understand how to responsibly create sustainable habitats within the Terraquarium.  We wish to bring a herpetologist on to the Terraquarium team to further understanding! Our hope is to clear the confusion as to how our prototype tank is setup and provide more details.  We can’t thank you enough for your support. We hope you were proud to back our first Kickstarter and look forward to relaunching with more knowledge, more experience and more content. Please be sure to follow our relaunch and again, thank you so much, your support is everything!

We have decided to make some changes to our campaign and relaunch in a few months

Hi Everyone, 

Thank you for all your support and feedback.  After taking into consideration some of your concerns, we have decided to make some changes to our campaign and relaunch in a few months!

As fellow lizard lovers and friends of fish, we make animal safety a top priority.  In order to ensure that your friends with fins or four legs live long and happy lives, it is crucial that our customers’ understand how to responsibly create sustainable habitats within the Terraquarium.  We wish to bring a herpetologist on to the Terraquarium team to further understanding! 

Our hope is to clear the confusion as to how our prototype tank is setup and provide more details.  We can’t thank you enough for your support. We hope you were proud to back our first Kickstarter and look forward to relaunching with more knowledge, more experience and more content. 

Please be sure to follow our relaunch and again, thank you so much, your support is everything!

Hello everyone!

We only have 15 DAYS left on our Kickstarter!!!

We need your help to share our project with your friends and family to make Terraquarium a reality. 

Thank you so much for your support and we have some more updates coming soon! Stay tuned!

Cheers,

Brian and Kirk

Not even geckos and spiders can sit upside down forever

Nanophysics makes sure of that. Mechanics researchers at Linköping University have demonstrated this in an article just published in Physical Review E. Knowledge that can be of great industrial benefit.
Geckos and spiders that seem to be able to sit still forever, and walk around upside down have fascinated researchers worldwide for many years. We will soon be able to buy smart new fasteners that hold the same way as the gecko’s foot. But the fact is, sooner or later the grip is lost, no matter how little force is acting on it. Stefan Lindström and Lars Johansson, researchers at the Division of Mechanics, Linköping University, together with Nils Karlsson, recent engineering graduate, have demonstrated this in an article just published in Physical Review E.
Still, it’s a phenomenon that can have considerable benefits, for instance in the production of graphene. Graphene consists only of one layer of atom, and which must be easily detached from the substrate.
In his graduation project at the Division of Mechanics, Nils Karlsson studied both the mechanics of the gecko’s leg as well as the adhesion of its foot to the substrate. The gecko’s foot has five toes, all with transverse lamellae. A scanning electron microscope shows that these lamellae consist of a number of small hair-like setae, each with a little film at the end, which resembles a small spatula. These spatulae, roughly 10 nm thick, are what adheres to the substrate.
”At the nano level, conditions are a bit different. The movement of the molecules is negligible in our macroscopic world, but it’s not in the nano world. Nils Karlsson’s graduation project suggested that heat, and consequently the movement of the molecules, has an effect on the adhesion of these spatulae. We wanted to do further analyses, and calculate what actually happens,” explains Stefan Lindström.
They refined the calculations, so they applied to a thin film in contact with an uneven surface (see illustration). So, the film only contacts the uppermost parts of the uneven surface. The researchers also chose to limit the calculations to the type of weak forces that exist between all atoms and molecules – van der Waals forces.
”It’s true, they are small, but they are always there and we know that they are extremely reliant on distance,” says Lars Johansson.
This means that the force is much stronger where the film is very close to a single high point, than when it is quite close to a number of high points. Then, when the film detaches, it does this point by point. This is because both contact surfaces are moving – vibrating. These are tiny movements, but at some stage the movements are in sync, so the surfaces actually lose contact. Then the van der Waals force is so small that the film releases.
”So in reality, we can detach a thin film from the substrate simply by waiting for the right moment. This doesn’t require a great deal of force. The part of the film that remains on the substrate vibrates constantly, and the harder I pull on this part, the faster the film will detach. But how long it takes for the film to detach also depends on the structure of the substrate and the film’s stiffness,” says Stefan Lindström.
In practice this means that even a small force over a long period will cause the film, or for that matter the gecko’s foot, to lose its grip. Which is fine for the gecko, who can scoot off, but maybe not so good for a fastening system. Still – in the right application, this knowledge can be of great industrial benefit.

Not even geckos and spiders can sit upside down forever

Nanophysics makes sure of that. Mechanics researchers at Linköping University have demonstrated this in an article just published in Physical Review E. Knowledge that can be of great industrial benefit.

Geckos and spiders that seem to be able to sit still forever, and walk around upside down have fascinated researchers worldwide for many years. We will soon be able to buy smart new fasteners that hold the same way as the gecko’s foot. But the fact is, sooner or later the grip is lost, no matter how little force is acting on it. Stefan Lindström and Lars Johansson, researchers at the Division of Mechanics, Linköping University, together with Nils Karlsson, recent engineering graduate, have demonstrated this in an article just published in Physical Review E.

Still, it’s a phenomenon that can have considerable benefits, for instance in the production of graphene. Graphene consists only of one layer of atom, and which must be easily detached from the substrate.

Nils KarlssonIn his graduation project at the Division of Mechanics, Nils Karlsson studied both the mechanics of the gecko’s leg as well as the adhesion of its foot to the substrate. The gecko’s foot has five toes, all with transverse lamellae. A scanning electron microscope shows that these lamellae consist of a number of small hair-like setae, each with a little film at the end, which resembles a small spatula. These spatulae, roughly 10 nm thick, are what adheres to the substrate.

”At the nano level, conditions are a bit different. The movement of the molecules is negligible in our macroscopic world, but it’s not in the nano world. Nils Karlsson’s graduation project suggested that heat, and consequently the movement of the molecules, has an effect on the adhesion of these spatulae. We wanted to do further analyses, and calculate what actually happens,” explains Stefan Lindström.

thin film in contact with an uneven surfaceThey refined the calculations, so they applied to a thin film in contact with an uneven surface (see illustration). So, the film only contacts the uppermost parts of the uneven surface. The researchers also chose to limit the calculations to the type of weak forces that exist between all atoms and molecules – van der Waals forces.

”It’s true, they are small, but they are always there and we know that they are extremely reliant on distance,” says Lars Johansson.

This means that the force is much stronger where the film is very close to a single high point, than when it is quite close to a number of high points. Then, when the film detaches, it does this point by point. This is because both contact surfaces are moving – vibrating. These are tiny movements, but at some stage the movements are in sync, so the surfaces actually lose contact. Then the van der Waals force is so small that the film releases.

Lars Johansson and Stefan Lindström”So in reality, we can detach a thin film from the substrate simply by waiting for the right moment. This doesn’t require a great deal of force. The part of the film that remains on the substrate vibrates constantly, and the harder I pull on this part, the faster the film will detach. But how long it takes for the film to detach also depends on the structure of the substrate and the film’s stiffness,” says Stefan Lindström.

In practice this means that even a small force over a long period will cause the film, or for that matter the gecko’s foot, to lose its grip. Which is fine for the gecko, who can scoot off, but maybe not so good for a fastening system. Still – in the right application, this knowledge can be of great industrial benefit.

Smarter than you think: Fish can remember where they were fed 12 days later

It is popularly believed that fish have a memory span of only 30 seconds. Canadian scientists, however, have demonstrated that this is far from true – in fact, fish can remember context and associations up to twelve days later.

The researchers studied African Cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus), a popular aquarium species. These fish demonstrate many complex behaviours, including aggression, causing the scientists to predict that they could be capable of advanced memory tasks. Each fish was trained to enter a particular zone of the aquarium to receive a food reward, with each training session lasting twenty minutes. After three training days, the fish were given a twelve day rest period. The fish were then reintroduced into their training arena and their movements recorded with motion-tracking software. It was found that the cichlids showed a distinct preference for the area associated with the food reward, suggesting that they recalled the previous training experiences. Furthermore, the fish were able to reverse this association after further training sessions where the food reward was associated with a different stimulus.
Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-smarter-fish-fed-days.html#jCp

Smarter than you think: Fish can remember where they were fed 12 days later

It is popularly believed that fish have a memory span of only 30 seconds. Canadian scientists, however, have demonstrated that this is far from true – in fact, fish can remember context and associations up to twelve days later.

The researchers studied African Cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus), a popular aquarium species. These  demonstrate many complex behaviours, including aggression, causing the scientists to predict that they could be capable of advanced memory tasks. Each fish was trained to enter a particular zone of the aquarium to receive a , with each training session lasting twenty minutes. After three training days, the fish were given a twelve day rest period. The fish were then reintroduced into their training arena and their movements recorded with motion-tracking software. It was found that the cichlids showed a distinct preference for the area associated with the food reward, suggesting that they recalled the previous training experiences. Furthermore, the fish were able to reverse this association after further training sessions where the food reward was associated with a different stimulus.



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-smarter-fish-fed-days.html#jCp